Brandorf A., Ivoilova M. The length of the proboscis by honeybees-pollinators of red clover // Materily of Konferenci XLVI Naukowa Konferencja Pszczelarska. – Pulawy, 2009. – Р. 30-31.
One of the basie morphological features of honeybees having importance for the effective pollination of red clover is proboscis length. Many researchers consider that only longproboscised can effectively visit red clover under the length of flower in 8 or12 mm.
Apis mellifera m. L. are recommended in Kirov region (proboscis length is 5,9 - 6,4 mm) and so studding of bee abilities to pollinate the red clover effectively is of practical interest.
The aim of study is to research the length of proboscis and the activity status the Kirov region honeybees on red clover flower.
The studies were made in red clover flowering period in June-July 2007-2009. 450 honeybees collected on red clover were examined. 52 accounts were made.
During research of bee proboscis length it was revealed that 87% of bees had proboscis length within 5,5-6,5 mm that is those bees were shortproboscised. Only 13% of bees had proboscis length in 6,6- 6,8 mm. Honeybees with proboscis length of more than 6,8 mm were not found.
In the result of observation for bee activities on the flower of red clover it was founded that bees preferred to visit it for collection of pollens the whole vegetation period. The number of bee pollen pickers changed from 55 at the beginning of flowering to 92% at the period of mass flowering; the rest bees collected nectar.
Nektarproductivity of red clover changes depending on the weather conditions from 80 to 145 kg/ha. But nectar is of low accessibility for honeybees because the height of clover flower tube changes at the end of flowering from 0,97 mm to 0, 78 mm (p < 0,001), but the height of bedding nectar on ovary is really from 3 mm to 2 mm (p < 0,05).
By the results of study the next conclusions may be made:
1. Proboscis Length of honeybees is not the main parameter, which is necessary to take into account when the bees on pollination of the red clover are use.
2. It is necessary to consider the red clover for honeybees as pollen-carrier.
3. Honeybees produce qualitative pollination regardless of the type of activity (collection of nectar or pollen). It is confirmed by the data of biological clover yield depending on bee amount on the account areas. Clover seed yield is really more than 2 times (p<0,05) on area, where average bee quantity is more than 1,5 times.
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